The average area, per decade, by which Arctic sea ice has shrunk during late summer since 1979. Many scientists now believe the Arctic Ocean could be seasonally ice-free within a few decades.
The distance in miles that isotherms (bands of average temperatures) have shifted northward during the last 30 years. This means that the Arctic—as defined by temperature—is shrinking.
The estimated amount of carbon, in gigatons, locked up in northern permafrost. As temperatures rise, the reservoir is leaking carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
A Chukchi shaman performing a ritual.
The Northern Sea Route is vital to the region’s economic development, given it will reduce cargo transportation time by almost two weeks - experts.
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