The estimated amount of carbon, in gigatons, locked up in northern permafrost. As temperatures rise, the reservoir is leaking carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
The average annual volume of ice, in billions of tons, shed by the Greenland Ice Sheet from 2003–2006. Over the past decade the overall discharge of icebergs on Greenland has surged by 30 percent.
The number of seas surrounding the Arctic Ocean, which includes the East Siberian, Laptev, Kara, Barents, Norwegian, Greenland, Beaufort, and Chukchi.
A Chukchi shaman performing a ritual.
Second International Arctic Forum will take place in Arkhangelsk on September 21-24
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