The distance in miles that isotherms (bands of average temperatures) have shifted northward during the last 30 years. This means that the Arctic—as defined by temperature—is shrinking.
The average area, per decade, by which Arctic sea ice has shrunk during late summer since 1979. Many scientists now believe the Arctic Ocean could be seasonally ice-free within a few decades.
The estimated amount of carbon, in gigatons, locked up in northern permafrost. As temperatures rise, the reservoir is leaking carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
A Chukchi shaman performing a ritual.
Second International Arctic Forum will take place in Arkhangelsk on September 21-24
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