The average area, per decade, by which Arctic sea ice has shrunk during late summer since 1979. Many scientists now believe the Arctic Ocean could be seasonally ice-free within a few decades.
The estimated amount of carbon, in gigatons, locked up in northern permafrost. As temperatures rise, the reservoir is leaking carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere.
The average annual volume of ice, in billions of tons, shed by the Greenland Ice Sheet from 2003–2006. Over the past decade the overall discharge of icebergs on Greenland has surged by 30 percent.
A Chukchi shaman performing a ritual.
The Northern Sea Route is vital to the region’s economic development, given it will reduce cargo transportation time by almost two weeks - experts.
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